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(of terms as used in this book)

'an: In Hadeeth, "on the authority of".

'Asr: the Afternoon Prayer.

aayah (pl. aayaat): "sign", a verse of the Qur'aan.

Companion (Ar. Sahaabi): a Muslim who met the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).

da'eef: "weak", inauthentic (narration).

Deen: the way of life prescribed by Allaah.

dhikr (pl. adhkaar): "remembrance", words by which Allaah is remembered and supplicated on doing various actions, including in prayer.

Fajr: the Dawn Prayer.

faqeeh (pl. fuqahaa'): a scholar of fiqh, jurist.

fatwaa (pl. fataawaa): religious verdict.

fiqh: the understanding and application of Sharee'ah (divine law) from its sources.

hadeeth (pl. ahaadeeth): a saying narrated from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) (whether authentic or not), regarding his words, actions, or attributes.

hadeeth qudsi: a narration by the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) on behalf of Allaah.

Hajj: Pilgrimage to Makkah.

halaal: permitted under the Sharee'ah.

haraam: prohibited under the Sharee'ah.

hasan: "fine", used for a hadeeth which is authentic but does not reach the higher category of saheeh.

hasan li dhaatihi: a narration which is hasan in itself.

hasan li ghairihi: a narration which is hasan due to other supporting narrations.

iftiraash: to sit muftarishan.

ijmaa': "consensus"; a unified opinion of scholars regarding a certain issue.

ijtihaad: "exertion"; the process of arising at a reasoned decision by a scholar on an issue.

iq'aa': "squatting".

'Ishaa': the Night Prayer.

isnaad: the chain of reporters for a narrated saying, linking the collector of the saying with the person quoted.

isti'aadhah: "seeking of refuge" (with Allaah from Shaytaan).

istighfaar: to seek forgiveness (from Allaah).

madhhab: "position (opinion)" of a scholar.

Madhhab: "school of thought", the sum total of the legal rulings of the founder of that Madhhab, as well as those of his students and all scholars who adhered to his approach.

maqloob: "reversed", used for the text of a hadeeth in which an expression has been changed to its opposite, or for an isnaad in which names of reporters have been interchanged.

Maghrib: the Sunset prayer.

makrooh: "disliked"; fiqh terminology denoting an action which is discouraged, and one is rewarded for abstaining from it.

marfoo': "raised"; a narration attributed to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).

masaa'il (sing. mas'alah): "that which is asked about"; an issue in fiqh.

mawdoo': fabricated, spurious, invented (narration).

mawqoof: "stopped"; a narration from a Companion.

mawsool: "connected"; a continuous isnaad.

mu'allaq: "suspended"; a narration in which its collector omits part of the isnaad to previous authorities.

mudallis: one who practises tadlees.

muftarishan: (sitting) on the left foot, which is spread along the ground, with the right foot upright.

mufti: one who gives fataawaa.

muhaddith (pl. muhadditheen): scholar of the science of Hadeeth.

mujtahid: one who is qualified to pass judgments using ijtihaad.

munkar: "rejected"; a narration which is inauthentic in itself and also contradicts other authentic ones.

muqallid: one who practises taqleed.

mursal: "loose"; a narration in which a Successor narrates from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) directly, i.e. omitting the Companion from whom he heard it.

mutawaatir: a hadeeth which is narrated by a very large number of reporters, such that it cannot be supposed that they all agreed on a lie.

qiyaas: Analogical deduction of Islaamic laws. New laws are deduced from old laws based on a similarity between their causes.

qunoot: "devotion"; a special supplication while standing in Prayer.

radi Allaahu 'anhu/'anhaa/'anhum: "May Allaah be pleased with him/her/them".

rahimahullaah: "May Allaah bestow His Mercy on him."

rak'ah: one cycle of standing, bowing and prostrations during Prayer.

saheeh: "correct"; an authentic narration.

saheeh li dhaatihi: a narration which is saheeh in itself.

saheeh li ghairihi: a narration which is saheeh due to other supporting narrations.

Salaf: "previous"; the early Muslims, of the first three eras: the Companions, Successors, and their successors.

sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam: "May Allaah send blessings and peace on him", used for the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).

sanad: same as isnaad.

shaadhdh: "unusual"; a narration which is authentic in itself but inconsistent with other authentic ones.

shaikh: teacher of a scholar or narrator of hadeeth.

Sharee'ah: The divine code of Law.

sharh: commentary on, or explanation of, a text other than the Qur'aan.

Successor (Ar. Taabi'i): a Muslim (other than a Companion) who met a Companion.

Sunnah: "Example, Practice"; the way of life of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), consisting of his words, actions and silent approvals. The Sunnah is contained in the various authentic ahaadeeth.

sunnah: an action of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam).

surah: a chapter of the Qur'aan.

sutrah: "screen, covering"; an object ahead of the place of prostration, only beyond which may anyone pass.

tadlees: "concealment"; to mask the identity of one's immediate authority in narration, e.g. by using a less well-known name, or by saying "on the authority of ..." the next narrator along.

tafseer: explanation of the words and meanings of the Qur'aan.

tahajjud: voluntary, recommended prayer between the compulsory prayers of 'Ishaa' and Fajr.

tahleel: to declare that there is no true deity except Allaah.

tahmeed: "declare the praise of", esp. to declare the Praise of Allaah.

ta'leeq: same as mu'allaq.

takbeer: "magnification"; to declare the Greatness of Allaah.

takhreej: to reference a hadeeth to its source and analyse its isnaads.

tarjamah: notes about a reporter of Hadeeth.

tasbeeh: to glorify Allaah, rejecting any imperfections attributed to Him.

tashahhud: from shahaadah (to witness); the sitting in Prayer, in which one bears witness that there is no true god except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His messenger.

tasleem: "to send peace on"; the Muslim salutation of peace.

taqleed: to follow someone's opinion; to follow a Madhhab.

Ummah: "nation"; the Muslims as a group.

'Umrah: the lesser pilgrimage to Makkah.

Witr: "Odd"; the last prayer at night, consisting of an odd number of rak'ahs.

Zuhr: the post-noon prayer.

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