Islam & Christianity

As Seen In The Bible Appendixes

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Appendix - A

Mohammed In The Bible (Peace Be Upon Them)

(Extracted from the article by Dr.JalnalBadawi, which appeared in "Al-Ittehad", Jan-Mar 1982 issue, published by the Muslim Students' Association of US and Canada, Plain field, Indiana, USA. It is gratefully acknowledged)

Turning to the Bible, some may hasten to ask: I have read the Bible several times, but never saw the name Mohammed; what is the justification of the title 'Muhammad in the Bible'? Many Christian theologians find no difficulty in pointing out what they consider as clear prophecies of the advent of Jesus. Where in the Old Testament does the name Jesus appear? Nowhere! The main question is whether or not the profile of "that prophet" to come has materialised, and who fits that profile?

There are several Old Testament prophecies which have been for a long time misinterpreted so as to apply to Jesus, which in fact refer to Prophet Mohammed. The profile of Prophet Mohammed was so clear to many Jews and Christians among his contemporaries that many of them accepted him (Mohammed) as the fulfillment of numerous Biblical prophecies.


One such prophecy is in the Book of Deuteronomy, wherein Prophet Moses was quoted as saying:

And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have spoken. I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.

(Deut. 18:17-18)

Three important elements are included in this prophecy:

  1. A prophet will come from among the 'brethren' of the Israelites
  2. This prophet will be 'like unto Moses'
  3. God will put his words in the mouth of this prophet.

Let us look closely at each of these elements:

A Prophet From Among The Brethren Of The Israelites

These words were spoken addressed to the Israelites. The most notable 'brethren' of Israelites (descendants of Abraham through his second son Isaac), are the Ishmaelites (descendants of Abraham through his first son Ishmael). Obviously, the 'brethren' of a nation cannot be a tribe or a family of the nation itself, but another nation related to it racially. The Bible also refers to the Israelites as the brethren of the Ishmaelites (e.g. Genesis 25:18).

A Prophet Like Unto Moses

It is sometimes contended that the 'prophet like unto Moses' was Jesus. After all both were Israelites and spiritual teachers. Was this prophecy really about Jesus?

To start off, Jesus himself was an Israelite, not of the 'brethren' of the Israelites, which shows that this particular prophecy is not about the coming of Jesus but about another prophet 'like unto Moses'. That prophet could have been none but Prophet Mohammed.

Following is a comparison between a few crucial characteristics of Moses, Mohammed and Jesus - which may clarify the identity of "that prophet" who was to come after Moses:

Area of Comparison
Family life
No Marriage
Prophet & Statesman
Prophet & Statesman
Prophet Only
Forced Emigration
To Median
To Medina
None Involving His Followers
Military Encounters
Hot Pursuit
Hot Pursuit
No Similar Encounter
Results of Encounter
Moral, Physical Victory
Moral, Physical Victory
Moral Victory
Recording of Revelation In Writing

In His Life Time

In His Life Time

After His Life Time

Nature of Teachings
Spiritual, Legal
Spiritual, Legal
Mainly Spiritual
Acceptance (Of Leadership By His People)

Rejected, Then Accepted

Rejected, Then Accepted

Rejected By Most Israelites


The table shows that not only were Moses and Mohammed very much alike in many respects, but also that Jesus does not fit this particular prophecy.

God Will Put His Words In The Mouth Of That Prophet

Generally speaking, this description may apply to any messenger of God who is communicating God's message to mankind. While that message may come in "written tablets" as is believed to have been the case with Moses, the specific wording of the above verse is a vivid description of the type of revelation received by Mohammed. Angel Gabriel used to come and dictate to him specific portions of the Qur'an which were then repeated by Prophet Mohammed exactly as he had heard them.

Mohammed's own thinking or authorship were not involved in any way in what he uttered. The words of God (the Qur'an) were "put into his mouth". As the Qur'an itself described:

He (Mohammed) does not speak of his own desire, it is no less than a revelation sent down to him.

(The Qur'an 53:3- 4)

Numerous passages in the Qur'an command Mohammed in such terms as: 'say', 'remind', 'inform'; other passages start with such expression as: 'and your Lord said', still in other passages it reads: 'and they ask you (0 Mohammed)... say...'


In the Book of Genesis we read that after the birth of Ishmael and before the birth of Isaac God made a promise to Abraham to bless his descendants:

As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shall be a father of many nations.

(Gen. 17:4)

And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed.

(Gen. 21:13)

Fulfillment of God's promise through the Israelite branch of Abraham is clearly and abundantly articulated in the Bible. How was that promise fulfilled through the Ishmaelite branch of the Abrahamic family tree? After Jesus, the last Israelite messenger and prophet, it was time that God's promise to bless Ishmael and his descendants be fulfilled. Less than 600 years after Jesus, came the last messenger of God, Muhammad, from the progeny of Abraham through Ishmael, whose followers constitute one-fifth of the total world population in all comers of the earth.


A most revealing profile is found in the Book of Isaiah, chapter 42, which relates to Kedar, son of Ishmael, and no other descendant of Ishmael fits these descriptions but Prophet Muhammad :

Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect ,in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him;...

(Isaiah 42:1) - [also called "my messenger" in verse 19]

Surely all prophets were indeed servants, messengers and elects of God. Yet no prophet in history is as universally called by these specific titles [abduhu, rasooluhu, and mustafa respectively in Arabic] as is Muhammad. The very testimony of faith by which a person enters into the fold of Islam reads: "I bear witness that their is no deity but Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger." Virtually the same is repeated by Muslims five times a day during the call to prayers, five times immediately before the beginning of prayers and minimum nine times a day during the mandatory prayers. The most common title of Prophet Mohammed since his mission began until today is Rasool Allah (the messenger of Allah). The Qur'an gives him this title.

He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he has set Judgment in the earth;...

(Isaiah 42:4);

...he shall prevail against his enemies.

(Isaiah 42:13)

... he shall bring forth judgment to the gentiles.

(Isaiah 42:1)

In comparing the lives and missions of Jesus and Muhammad, we find Jesus expressing on more than one occasion how disappointed he was in the Israelites' rejection of him. Nor did Jesus live long enough to prevail over his enemies (beyond a moral victory, which is a common feature for all prophets). On the other hand, in case of Prophet Muhammad we find no trace of discouragement even in the most critical moments of his mission. After the bitter struggle he 'prevailed against his enemies', established a strong community of believers who indeed 'brought judgment to the Gentiles'.

He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in the street.

(Isaiah 42:2)

Not only was this his distinct characteristic and mark of decency, it was indeed the embodiment of the revelation given to him.

"Be modest in thy bearing and subdue thy voice."

(The Qur'an 31:19)]

... and the isles shall wait for his law.

(Isaiah 42:4)

The only prophet who came after this prophecy with a complete and comprehensive code of law was Prophet Muhammad. The law revealed to him spread in a relatively short span of time to all comers of the earth.

To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house.

(Isaiah 42:7)

People who lived in the darkness of an unholy life came to the light of truth completed through the mission of Prophet Muhammad. Many of those who were opposed to the truth and bitterly fought with him ended up among the most devout believers. Their blindness to truth was cured. God addresses Prophet Muhammad describing the Qur'an:

"A book which We revealed unto you, in order that you may lead mankind out of the depths of darkness unto light.."

(The Qur'an 14:1)

I am the Lord; that is my name; and my glory will I not give to another; ..

(Isaiah 42:8)

The greatest glory a person receives from God is to be entrusted as His messenger to mankind and to receive His glorious revelation. Not only did this apply to Prophet Muhammad, but it is uniquely applied to him as the last messenger and prophet of God, as he is the 'seal' of all prophets as described in the Qur'an (33:59). It is already 1400 years since Muhammad was sent and the Qur'an was sent with him, yet there has been no genuine prophet of the magnitude and influence on humanity to be compared with such figures as Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. Nor do we find any holy book (glory) after the Qur'an that has influenced mankind, and continues to hold influence, to such a degree.

Sing unto the Lord a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth..,

(Isaiah 42:10)

A new song may be a reference to a new scripture in a language other than the language of Israelite scriptures. This seems in consistence with a mention of 'another tongue will he speak' in Isaiah 28:11. The praise of God is chanted in Arabic five times daily from the minarets of millions of mosques around the world ('from the ends of the earth').

Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice, the village that Kedar doth inhabit; let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains.

(Isaiah 42:11)

Kedar was the second son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:13).The well-known prophet who came from Ishmael's descendants is Muhammad. His enemies, who were misled by their leaders or mighty men (as described in Isaiah 21:17) ultimately embraced Islam. Indeed they had reason to lift up their voice', to 'sing' praise of God, and 'shout from the top of the mountains'. This is possibly a reference to the shouting of "Here I come(for your service) 0 Allah. Here I come. There is no partner with you. Here I come. Verily yours is the praise, the blessings and sovereignty.." that is chanted annually from Mount Arafat near Mecca by multitudes of Muslims from all over the world as part of the annual rites of the Hajj pilgrimage.


Appendix - B

Mohammed Prophesied By Jesus(Peace Be Upon Them)

(This article by 5.5. Mufassir, a former Baptist Church Minister, is taken from 'Impact International', 33 Stroud Green Road, London N4 3EF, UK, 28 Dec., 1973. It is gratefully acknowledged.)

There is an amazing number of things which the Christian reader of the New Testament misses even in the most thorough reading, because his frame of reference and his scrutiny are controlled carefully by official church dogma. My own case is instructive. I was raised and baptised in the Baptist church and spent much of my youth seriously studying the Bible and religious discipline. At a still young age, I entered the ministry. I thought I knew the Bible well. As paradoxical as it seems, I must admit that I never possessed as complete a knowledge of the Bible as a Christian as I have gained since embracing Islam. The reason is that, in general, the Christian interpretation presents a puzzle with major parts missing, and those parts can be supplied only by Islam. The Christian sees the Bible as an end in itself, whereas in reality it is but an indicator pointing the way to something else which was then yet to come. Until this event occurred, the Bible was an incomplete, unfulfilled Book, and many of its profound prophecies could not be grasped completely. Christian theologians and scholars, eager to impress their following, often erred in assigning premature "fulfillments" to those foregleams of the future. When the prophecies actually came true these erroneous conjectures had assumed the status of dogma, blinding Christians to the fruition of their own beliefs.

An exceptional example of the dangers of such hasty interpretation is the standard Christian exegesis of John (14:16-17) and John (16:7-14). Giving Christian scholars the benefit of doubt, we will assume that the accepted Greek text records in general the actual sayings of Jesus, peace be upon him. In these verses, Jesus highlights the brevity of his own mission, showing its intermediate status as a link between the prophetic past and the prophetic future. It is significant that Jesus never called himself the last prophet, or even a universal prophet, though Christians later came to consider him as both. On the contrary, here, when read carefully with regard to the Greek text rather than the creeds of the Establishment Churches, Jesus points specifically to the coming of another prophet after him who would

Be eminently truthful and trustworthy

Teach only what God revealed, and

Honour Jesus by carrying the prophetic mission on to its logical conclusion.

A characteristic of what is termed Biblical prophecy is that it merely gives outlines which become perfectly distinct only upon the unfolding of reality. Thus, we have no instance here of Jesus saying, in the unreal fashion of the Italian "Gospel of Barnabas", 'after me there shall come the Last Prophet, Mohammed bin Abdullah.' But Biblical prophecy does have certain safeguards which make the intended interpretation sure beyond all doubt. The New Testament records Jesus as saying :

Let not your heart be troubled, ye believe in God, believe also in me . . . I go to prepare a place for you....and I will pray the Father, and He shall give you another Comforter (Greek parakleetos ), that he may abide with you forever: even the spirit of truth.

John (14:1,16,17)

Jesus says that the prophet who would come after him would be a true messenger commissioned by God who, like Jesus, would possess a heavenly Revelation from God, teaching not words of his own composition, but whatever God gave him to speak:

But when he, the spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you in all truth: for he shall not speak of himself;; but whatsoever he shall hear (from God) that shall he speak: and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine and shall show unto you.

John (16:13,14)

Thus, additionally, this coming prophet would not spurn the mission of Jesus, but would recognise it and actually "glorify" Jesus by removing from association with him all the false doctrines with which others surrounded the name. Unlike the Jews in general, this prophet would not belie the mission of Jesus, but take the prophetic mission on to its conclusion. Now, who would this be? Jesus calls him the "Paraclete". We cannot discount the opinion that What Jesus really said, in his own language of Aramaic, was nearer in meaning to the similar Greek word "Periclyte", "The Praised One", and that 'John' - an unknown writer in the second century of the Christian era - picked up "Paraclete" in error. However, until positive textual evidence is available, we shall continue to give the benefit of the doubt, because even in its admittedly defective condition, the light of truth shines forth in it with startling brilliance.

For centuries, based on the King James' Version, Christendom has translated "Paraclete" as "the Comforter" though that is not precisely what "Paraclete" means. Even so, "Comforter" would be an acceptable title for the one who is the Mercy of all creatures. What "Paraclete" means, though, is an "advocate", one who pleads the cause of another, one who counsels or advises. The word points to one who would be an advocate for and counsellor to mankind, who, as the Qur'an puts it, would be harisun alaikum, 'solicitous for your welfare'. (Likewise, in English "solicitor" is synonymous with "advocate" in the legal sense). Another indication which acts as a safeguard for the true meaning of these verses is that the "Paraclete" is also given the title "Spirit of Truth" (Greek to pneuma tees aleetheais ). This is clear when one realises that in New Testament Greek, pneuma can mean "possessor of a spiritual communication", i.e., an inspired person , as well as a "spirit" per se. (A Greek-English Lexicon to the New Testament, by Rev. Thomas S. Green). Thus, to pneuma tees aleetheais, the inspired truthful one", means that the "Paraclete" would be so truthful and trustworthy in discharging his responsibilities to the Divine Revelation that "the Truthful" or "the Trustworthy" would be identifying titles for him. The Greek aleetheais corresponds exactly with the Arabic Amin, and "Al-Amin", "the Trustworthy", which was an early title of Mohammed, peace be upon him.

Some hasty editor was not satisfied with the expression "spirit of truth", or did not understand it, and assumed that this must be the same as the "Holy Spirit". The words at John (14:26) which identify the "Paraclete" as the Holy Spirit are the result of this. Such words are found nowhere else and are obviously an addition to the text. Yet, this premature interpretation, unsound textually, is the one generally acceptable by the Church for explaining who the "Paraclete" is! But Jesus has spoken of someone who would dwell physically with mankind, advising and counselling them, in effect, "pleading their case" with God and showing them the sure way of return, by adherence to the truth, to the Divine Judge. He was not someone who was already present, but someone yet to come. As for the holy spirit, the angel of revelation, his presence was already manifest. David knew him, and asked God,"take not Thy holy spirit from me." (Psalms 51:11), The holy spirit was present already during the ministry of Jesus, a fact which the New Testament acknowledges abundantly (cf. Matthew 3:16,17; 12:27-33, etc.). lt would have been ridiculous and redundant for Jesus to speak of the future coming ('He shall/will give you . . .') of what presently existed.

Jesus points to a fundamental distinction between the "Paraclete" and all other prophets: "that he may abide with you for ever." This is the same as saying: 'the Last Prophet whose mission has permanence, voiding the need of any additional prophets.' In plain English, Jesus is saying: 'Look, I must go away soon, my mission among you having been completed. But I will ask our Lord to send for all of you another counsellor, the prophet who will stand as your guide until the end of time.'

To prove conclusively that "John" understood the "Paraclete" to be a flesh and blood person, not a disembodied spirit or an angel, in another New Testament book attributed to him (I John 2:1) he used the same term with reference to Jesus: "We have an advocate (Greek parakleetos, the same word rendered 'Comforter' earlier) with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous". Jesus, as God's messenger, was considered to be a "Paraclete"; the term was thus not understood by early Christians to mean someone supernatural. The fact is that "Paraclete" or "Counsellor" or "Advocate" refers to a human being, an inspired person - which is a legitimate meaning of pneuma - and not a "spirit" per se. In practical terms, the meaning of "Paraclete" is nearly synonymous with "prophet", with emphasis on the teaching and counselling aspects of prophethood. If Jesus said 'another Paraclete' at John (14:16), the significance is 'another prophet, outstanding for his teaching and counselling.' Furthermore, Jesus qualifies this "Paraclete" by terming him the one to 'abide . . . for ever', the last or permanent one.

There is yet another possibility for the serious researcher. There arc numerous instances in the history of biblical textual transmission wherein words have been added in advertently to the Hebrew and Greek texts; likewise, there are instances wherein words, indeed, complete sentences, have been omitted inadvertently from those texts by copyists, especially where the letters of the omitted word were similar to another word which preceded or followed it. In the ancient texts, the letters were all run together, without spacing, so that Jesus' words at John 14:16 would have looked like this in the Greek text:


Later, words were spaced so that we have:

Kai Ego Erooteesoo Ton Patera Kai Allon Parakleeton Doosei Umin.

(And I will ask the father, and he will give you another Paraclete.)

The point is that the received Greek text's "Paraclete" may not be a corruption of "Periclyte". The original text might well have contained both words, but one became omitted in later copying because of being so close in position and in spelling to the other. Only further research can resolve the matter, but it is quite possible that what Jesus said originally was along these lines:

"I will request our Lord, and He will send you another Counsellor, the Praised One, who will be permanent for you until the end of time."

This is not entirely hypothetical; it has actually happened with other words and sentences of the Greek New Testament.

Nevertheless, there is no one else in all of history that John 14:16 et seq. could refer to but Mohammed bin Abdullah, peace be upon him. Christians admit that these verses do not refer to Jesus himself, and the premature identification of the "Paraclete" with the Holy Spirit is untenable in view of other verses of the Bible. Further, no one else has come as a prophet giving due recognition to the mission of Jesus

"He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine . . .

(John 16:14)

No one else has led mankind into "all truth" (John 16:13). Only one man has received God's Revelation since the time of Jesus, and only one man stands as Counsellor and Advocate ("Paraclete") for mankind for all the ages to come. Praised ("Periclyte") by God and some 1,000 millions of the human family.



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